KAJIKA 1/700 imperial japanese navy battlecruisers Haruna KM70003 AND 1/700 imperial japanese navy battlecruisers Kirishima KM70004 FULL review X2

General characteristics
Class and type: Kongō-class battlecruiser
Displacement: 36,600 long tons (37,187 t)
Length: 222 m (728 ft 4 in)
Beam: 31 m (101 ft 8 in)
Draft: 9.7 m (31 ft 10 in)
Installed power: 64,000 shp (48,000 kW)
Propulsion:
  • 4 × Brown-Curtis turbines
  • 4 × shafts
Speed:
  • 1915–1934: 26 kn (48 km/h; 30 mph)
  • 1934–1945: 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph)
Complement: 1,360
Armament:
  • 1915:
  • 8 × 356 mm (14 in) guns (4×2)
  • 16 × 152 mm (6 in) guns (16×1)
  • 8 × 76 mm (3 in) guns (8×1)
  • 8 × 530 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes (submerged)
  • 1945:
  • 8 × 356 mm (14 in) (4×2)
  • 16 × 152 mm (6 in) guns (16×1)
  • 12 × 127 mm (5 in)/40 guns (6×2)
  • 108 × 25 mm (0.98 in) Type 96 AA guns
Armor:
  • Turrets: 9 in (230 mm)
  • Belt: 8 in (200 mm)
  • Deck: 1.5 in (38 mm)–2.75 in (70 mm)
Aircraft carried: 3 × reconnaissance floatplanes 
Notes: Unless otherwise noted, all statistics apply to after the second reconstruction.

Haruna (榛名) was a warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I and World War II. Designed by the British naval engineer George Thurston and named after Mount Haruna, she was the fourth and last battlecruiser of the Kongō class, amongst the most heavily armed ships in any navy when built. Laid down in 1912 at the Kawasaki Shipyards in Kobe, Harunawas formally commissioned in 1915 on the same day as her sister ship, KirishimaHaruna patrolled off the Chinese coast during World War I. During gunnery drills in 1920, an explosion destroyed one of her guns, damaged the gun turret, and killed seven men. During her career, Haruna underwent two major reconstructions. Beginning in 1926, the Imperial Japanese Navy rebuilt her as a battleship, strengthening her armor and improving her speed and power capabilities. In 1933, her superstructure was completely rebuilt, her speed was increased, and she was equipped with launch catapults for floatplanes. Now fast enough to accompany Japan's growing carrier fleet, Haruna was reclassified as a fast battleship. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Haruna transported Imperial Japanese Army troops to mainland China before being redeployed to the Third Battleship Division in 1941. On the eve of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, she sailed as part of the Southern Force in preparation for the Battle of Singapore.

Haruna fought in almost every major naval action of the Pacific Theater during World War II. She covered the Japanese landings in Malaya (in present-day Malaysia) and the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) in 1942 before engaging American forces at the Battle of Midway and during the Guadalcanal Campaign. Throughout 1943, Haruna primarily remained at Truk Lagoon (Micronesia), Kure Naval Base (near Hiroshima), Sasebo Naval Base (near Nagasaki), and the Lingga Islands (in present-day Indonesia), and deployed on several occasions in response to American carrier airstrikes on Japanese island bases. Haruna participated in the Battle of the Philippine Sea and the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944, engaging American vessels in the latter. In 1945, Haruna was transferred to Kure Naval Base, where she was sunk by aircraft of Task Force 38 on 28 July 1945.

Design and construction

Haruna was the fourth and last of the Imperial Japanese Navy's Kongō-class battlecruisers, a line of capital ships designed by the British naval engineer George Thurston. The class was ordered in 1910 in the Japanese Emergency Naval Expansion Bill after the commissioning of HMS Invincible in 1908. The four battlecruisers of the Kongo-class were designed to match the naval capabilities of the other major powers at the time; they have been called the battlecruiser versions of the British (formerly Turkish) battleship HMS Erin. Their heavy armament and armor protection (which contributed 23.3 percent of their displacement) were greatly superior to those of any other Japanese capital ship afloat at the time.

Haruna's fitting-out at Kôbe in October 1914

The keel of Haruna was laid down at Kobe by Kawasaki on 16 March 1912, with most of the parts used in her construction manufactured in Japan. Due to a shortage of available slipways, Haruna and her sister ship Kirishima were the first two capital ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy to be built in private shipyards. Launched on 14 December 1913, Haruna's fitting-out began in early 1914. She was completed on 19 April 1915.

Armament

Haruna's main battery consisted of eight 14 in (36 cm) heavy-caliber main guns in four twin turrets (two forward, two aft). The turrets were noted by the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence to be "similar to the British 15-inch turrets",with improvements made in flash-tightness. Each of her main guns could fire high-explosive or armor-piercing shells a maximum of 38,770 yd (19.14 nmi; 35.45 km) at a firing rate of two shells per minute. In keeping with the Japanese doctrine of deploying more powerful vessels before their opponents, Haruna and her sister ships were the first vessels in the world equipped with 14 in (36 cm) guns. The main guns carried ammunition for 90 salvoes, and had an approximate barrel life of 250 to 280 rounds. In 1941, separate dyes (used to distinguish between shells fired from multiple ships) were introduced for the armor-piercing shells of the four Kongo-class battleships, with Haruna's armor-piercing shells using black dye.

Her secondary battery was originally sixteen 6 in (15 cm) 50-caliber medium guns in single casemates (all located amidships), eight 3 in (7.6 cm) guns and eight submerged 21 in (53 cm) torpedo tubes. The six-inch guns could fire five to six rounds per minute, with a barrel life of 500 rounds. The 6"/50 caliber gun was capable of firing both anti-aircraft and anti-ship shells, though the positioning of the guns on Haruna made antiaircraft firing impractical. During her second reconstruction, the older 3-inch guns were removed and replaced with eight 5 in (13 cm) dual-purpose guns. These 5"/40 caliber guns could fire between 8 and 14 rounds per minute, with a barrel life of 800 to 1,500 rounds. The 5"/40 had the widest variety of shot types of Haruna's guns, being designed to fire antiaircraft, antiship, and illumination shells. She was also armed with a large number of 1 in (2.5 cm) antiaircraft machine guns. In 1943, her secondary armament was reconfigured to eight 6 in (15 cm) guns, twelve 5 in (13 cm) guns, and finally by the end of 1944 one hundred and eight Type 96 antiaircraft autocannon in 30 triples and 18 single mounts.

Operational history

1915–1926: Battlecruiser

On 19 April 1915, Haruna was formally commissioned at Kobe. On 13 December 1915, after eight months of trials, she was assigned to the Third Battleship Division of the Second Fleet. On 9 April 1916, she departed Sasebo Naval Base for operations in the East China Sea, returning to Japan 10 days later. On 1 December 1916, Captain Saburo Hyakutake assumed command of Haruna until 15 September 1917, when Captain Naomi Taniguchi replaced him. On 1 December 1917, she was placed in reserve, as hostilities in the Pacific theatre of World War I concluded.

Haruna at Kōbe on 24 April 1915

On 12 September 1920, Haruna was involved in gunnery drills off Hokkaidō when a breech explosion destroyed the starboard gun of the No. 1 turret, killing seven men and badly damaging the armored roof of the turret. A later investigation by the Imperial Japanese Navy concluded that a faulty fuse ignited the gunpowder bags in the breech, detonating the shell while still in the barrel. The turret was repaired at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, where the elevation of her 14-inch guns was also increased by seven degrees. Three months later, she was once again placed in reserve.

With the conclusion of World War I and the signing of the Washington Naval Treaty, the size of the Imperial Japanese Navy was significantly lessened, with a ratio of 5:5:3 required between the capital ships of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan. The treaty also banned Japan from building any new capital ships until 1931, with no capital ship permitted to exceed 35,000 long tons (36,000 t).Provided that new additions did not exceed 3,000 long tons (3,000 t), existing capital ships were allowed to be upgraded with improved anti-torpedo bulges and deck armor. By the time the Washington Treaty had been fully implemented in Japan, only three classes of World War I-era capital ships remained active: the Ise-class battleships, the Kongō-class battlecruisers, and one of the Fusō-class battleships (Yamashiro).

1926–1933: Reconstruction into battleship

Haruna at sea.

Unable to construct new capital ships until 1931, Japan resorted to upgrading battleships and battlecruisers. In July 1926, Haruna became the first of Japan's vessels to undergo extensive modernization and modification, in drydock at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. Over the next two years, her horizontal armor near her ammunition magazines was strengthened, and the machinery spaces within the hull were increased.Anti-torpedo bulges were added along the waterline, as permitted by the Washington Treaty. She was refitted to accommodate three Type 90 Model 0 floatplanes. To increase her speed and power capacities, all 36 Yarrow boilers were removed and replaced with 16 newer boilers, and Brown-Curtis direct-drive turbines were installed. Haruna's forward funnel was removed, and her second funnel was enlarged and lengthened. The modifications to her hull increased her armor weight from 6,502 to 10,313 long tons, directly violating the terms of the Washington Treaty. In July 1928, Haruna—now capable of speeds of 29 kn (54 km/h; 33 mph)—was reclassified as a battleship.

Following new sea trials, Haruna was assigned on 10 December 1928 to the Fourth Battleship Division of the Second Fleet as the Emperor's special ship. For the next 12 months, she operated between Sasebo, Port Arthur, and the East China Sea. On 1 February 1929, Prince Takamatsu, the younger brother of Emperor Hirohito, was assigned to the crew. On 20 November 1929, she was reassigned to the First Battleship Division. She was placed in reserve on 1 December 1930.

Haruna undergoing trials after her reconstruction in 1928

On 22 April 1930, Japan signed the London Naval Treaty, placing further restrictions on her maritime forces. In addition to the scrapping of several older battleships, Japan would not be permitted to construct new capital ships until 1937. After minor fitting-out work, her reconstruction begun in 1926 was declared complete on 1 October 1931. On 8 November 1931, she served as the Emperor's ship during his official visit to Kumamoto prefecture.

In September 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria. On 25 February 1933, based on the report by the Lytton Commission, the League of Nationsagreed that Japan's invasion had violated Chinese sovereignty. Refusing to accept the organization's judgment, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations the same day. Immediately following, Japan also withdrew from the Washington and London Naval Treaties, thus removing all restrictions on the number and size of her capital ships. Haruna was reactivated and assigned to the First Battleship Division on 20 May 1933.

1933–1941: Fast battleship

On 1 August 1933, Haruna was drydocked at Kure Naval Arsenal in preparation for upgrades that would enable her to escort Japan's growing fleet of aircraft carriers. Her stern was lengthened by 26 ft (7.9 m), and her bridge was completely reconstructed according to Japan's pagoda mast style of forward superstructure. Her 16 older boilers were removed and replaced with 11 oil-fired Kampon Boilers and newer geared turbines. Catapults and rails were added to support three Nakajima E8N or Kawanishi E7Kreconnaissance and spotter floatplanes.

Haruna's armor was also extensively upgraded. Her main belt was strengthened to a uniform thickness of 8 inches (up from varying thicknesses of 6 to 8 inches), while diagonal bulkheads of depths ranging from 5 to 8 in (127 to 203 mm) now reinforced the main armored belt. The turret armor was strengthened to 10 inches (254 mm), while 4 in (102 mm) were added to portions of the deck armor. Her ammunition magazine protection was also strengthened to 4.0 inches (10 cm). The reconstruction was finished on 30 September 1934. Capable of more than 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph) despite the significant increase in hull displacement, Haruna was now reclassified as a fast battleship.

Haruna at Yokosuka in 1935

On 28 October 1935, Captain Jisaburō Ozawa assumed command of Haruna. On 1 June 1936, she was assigned to the Third Battleship Division of the First Fleet. Throughout 1937, Haruna conducted extensive gunnery drills and patrols off the coast of China, primarily in the vicinity of Tsingtao. On 7 July 1937, Japan officially declared war on China, thus beginning the Sino-Japanese War. One month later, Haruna transported Japanese Army forces to mainland China in preparation for campaigns into Chinese Nationalist territory. On 1 December 1937, she was again placed in reserve. On 2 April 1940, she was transferred from Sasebo to Taiwan. She was redesignated as a "special service ship" on 15 November 1940, and five months later was attached to the Third Battleship Division of the First Fleet, based in Hashirajima.

1941–1942: Early war service

Haruna and Kongō departed the Hashirajima fleet anchorage on 29 November 1941, to participate in the opening stage of the Pacific Waras part of the Southern (Malay) Force's Main Body, under the overall command of Vice-Admiral Nobutake Kondō. On 4 December 1941, the Main Body arrived off the coast of Southern Siam and Northern Malaya, in preparation for the invasion of Siam and the Malayan Peninsula four days later. When Britain's "Force Z" – consisting of the battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser HMS Repulse – was quickly defeated by Japan's land-based and carrier aircraft, Haruna's battlegroup withdrew from Malayan waters. The battlegroup subsequently sortied from Indochina for three days in mid-December to protect a reinforcement convoy traveling to Malaya and again on 18 December to cover the Army's landing at Lingayen Gulf in the Philippines. The Main Body departed Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina on 23 December bound for Taiwan, arriving two days later.

On 13 December 1941, an erroneous report was published in the U.S. media that an American B-17 heavy bomber had bombed and mortally damaged Haruna during battle off Lingayen Gulf off the Philippines. No Japanese battleships were present, and Haruna was 1,500 nmi (2,800 km; 1,700 mi) away in the Gulf of Siam at the time.

On 18 January 1942, Kondō's Main Force arrived in Palau alongside two fast carriers, with the intention of covering Japan's invasion of Borneo and the Dutch East Indies.HarunaMaya, and the fleet carriers Hiryū and Sōryū operated to the east of Mindanao until 18 February 1942, when the Main Body departed Palau in preparation for "Operation J", Japan's invasion of the Dutch East Indies. On 25 February, the Third Battleship Division provided cover for air attacks on Java. Haruna bombarded Christmas Island on 7 March 1942, then returned to Staring-baai for 15 days of maintenance and rest. In April 1942, Haruna joined five fleet carriers in attacks on Colombo in Ceylon. Following the destruction of HMS Dorsetshire on 5 April 1942, Haruna was sent southwest to locate the remainder of the British Eastern Fleet, under the command of Admiral James Somerville. On 9 April, one of her floatplanes spotted the carrier HMS Hermes south of Trincomalee; Japanese airstrikes sank the carrier the same day. Having crippled the offensive capability of Britain's Eastern Fleet, the Third Battleship Division returned to Japan on 23 April. Haruna was drydocked throughout May 1942 for general repairs and refits.

On 29 May 1942, Haruna joined her sister ship Kirishima as part of Vice-Admiral Chūichi Nagumo's carrier strike force during the Battle of Midway. On 4 June, she was attacked in multiple airstrikes by American torpedo bombers, but she took no hits and succeeded in shooting down five American aircraft. On 5 June, she took on survivors from the four destroyed Japanese aircraft carriers before returning to Japan. She remained in Japan until September 1942, undergoing minor refits in August of that year. On 6 September, Haruna transferred to Truk Lagoon alongside the rest of the Third Battleship Division, and on 10 September the ship sortied as part of Admiral Kondō's Second Fleet into the Solomon Islands. On 20 September, the fleet was ordered to return to Truk.

In the aftermath of the Battle of Cape Esperance, the Japanese Army opted to reinforce their positions on Guadalcanal. To protect their transport convoy from enemy air attack, Admiral Yamamoto sent Haruna and Kongō, escorted by one light cruiser and nine destroyers, to bombard Henderson Field. Because of their high speed, the two battleships could bombard the field and withdraw before being subjected to air attack from aircraft carriers.On the night of 13–14 October, the two battleships shelled Henderson Field from a distance of 16,000 yards (15,000 m), firing 973 14-inch shells. In the most successful Japanese battleship action of the war, the bombardment heavily damaged both runways, destroyed almost all available aviation fuel, incapacitated 48 of the airfield's 90 aircraft, and killed 41 men. The Japanese troop convoy reached the island the next day.

During the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands on 26 October 1942, Haruna was attacked by a PBY Catalina flying boat but received no damage. In mid-November, the battleship and other warships provided distant cover for the ultimately unsuccessful efforts to bombard Henderson Field again and land reinforcements on Guadalcanal. On 15 November 1942, following the Japanese defeat and loss of Hiei and Kirishima during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, the Third Battleship Division returned to Truk, where it remained for the rest of 1942.

1943: Movement between bases

Haruna engaged no enemy targets during 1943. In late January 1943, she participated in "Operation Ke", as part of a diversionary force and distant cover supporting Japanese destroyers that were evacuating personnel from Guadalcanal. During 15–20 February 1943, the Third Battleship Division transferred from Truk to Kure Naval Base. From 23 February to 31 March 1943, Haruna was drydocked in Kure Naval Arsenal for upgrades, receiving additional Type 96 25 mm (0.98 in) antiaircraft guns and armor. On 17 May 1943, in response to the American invasion of Attu Island, Haruna sortied alongside Musashi, the Third Battleship Division, two fleet carriers, two cruisers and nine destroyers. Three days later, the submarine USS Sawfish discovered the task group, but was unable to attack. On 22 May 1943, the task force arrived in Yokosuka, where it was joined by an additional three fleet carriers and two light cruisers; the force was disbanded when Attu fell before the necessary preparations were finished. Throughout June 1943, Haruna was refitted at Yokosuka. On 18 September 1943, Haruna left Truk as part of a counterattack force in response to American raids on the Brown Islands in Micronesia, but no contact was made and the ship returned to the base.

On 17 October 1943, Haruna again left Truk as part of an even larger force—five battleships, three fleet carriers, eight heavy cruisers, three light cruisers and numerous destroyers—in response to American raids on Wake Island. When no contact was made the force returned to Truk on 26 October 1943. On 16 December 1943, she arrived at Sasebo for refits and inland-sea training.

1944: Final combat actions

A drawing from the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence depicting the Kongō-class in 1944–1945

On 25 January 1944, Captain Kazu Shigenaga assumed command of Haruna while the ship was stationed at Kure. The Third Battleship Division departed Kure on 8 March 1944. Arriving at Lingga on 14 March 1944, the division remained for training until 11 May 1944. On 11 May 1944, Haruna and Admiral Ozawa's Mobile Fleet departed Lingga for Tawi-Tawi, where they were joined by Vice-Admiral Takeo Kurita's "Force C". On 13 June, Ozawa's Mobile Fleet departed Tawitawi for the Mariana Islands. During the Battle of the Philippine Sea, Harunaescorted Japanese fast carriers, and was hit by two 500 lb (230 kg) armor-piercing bombs on 20 June 1944 from U.S. carrier aircraft. On 24 June, she was drydocked in Kure for repairs and refitting. In August 1944 she transferred to Lingga.

In October 1944, Haruna departed Lingga in preparation for "Operation Sho-1", Japan's counterattack during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval engagement in history. On 24 October, Haruna was lightly damaged by fragments from near misses by American carrier aircraft in the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea. On 25 October, during the Battle off Samar, Haruna—as part of Admiral Kurita's Centre Force—engaged escort carriers and destroyers of the U.S. 7th Fleet's "Taffy 3". Her 14 in (36 cm) shells straddled (but did not hit) two American escort carriers, before she dodged torpedoes launched by American destroyers. After a fierce defensive action by the American ships, Admiral Kurita elected to withdraw, ending the battle.

Following the Japanese Navy's defeat at Leyte Gulf, Haruna returned to Brunei and Lingga for repairs. On 22 November 1944, she ran aground on a coral reef near Lingga, suffering serious damage to her watertight compartments and forcing her to return to Sasebo, where the hull was patched and repaired. On 2 December 1944, while returning to Japan from Southeast Asia as part of a task group, she evaded torpedoes fired by an American submarine. On 9 December, three more American submarines intercepted the task group; USS Sea DevilPlaice, and Redfish damaged the carrier Junyō and multiple destroyers with torpedoes. Unharmed, Haruna arrived at Sasebo the following day. At the end of 1944, she transferred to Kure for full repairs and upgrading, having survived a year in which four other Japanese battleships had been lost.

1945: Loss

Haruna at her moorings near Kure, Japan, under attack by U.S. Navy carrier aircraft, 28 July 1945

Haruna, sunken at her moorings after the attack of 28 July 1945

On 1 January 1945, Haruna was removed from the deactivated Third Battleship Division and transferred to the First Battleship Division of the Second Fleet. On 10 February, Haruna was assigned to the Kure Naval District. On 19 March 1945, American carrier aircraft attacked the remainder of the Japanese Navy at Kure. The base was defended by veteran Japanese fighter instructors flying Kawanishi N1K-J"Shiden" or "George" fighters, led by the man who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor, Minoru Genda. These fighter planes were superior in some respects to America's main fighter, the F6F Hellcat. They surprised the attackers, destroyed several American aircraft, and defended the base from the brunt of the attack. Haruna sustained light damage from a single bomb on the starboard side, and remained at Kure.

On 24 July 1945, the U.S. Navy's Task Force 38 began a series of aerial attacks on Kure Naval Base to destroy the last remnants of Japan's navy. The same day, the battleship Hyūga was sunk, and Haruna was hit by a single bomb which caused light damage. Four days later, she sustained eight bomb hits from Task Force 38's aircraft and sank at her moorings at 16:15. In two days of attacks, 65 officers and men of Haruna were killed. Her remnants were raised from the sea floor in 1946 and broken up over the course of two months.



Name: Kirishima
Namesake: Mount Kirishima
Ordered: 1911
Builder:
  • Mitsubishi Shipyard of Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha
  • (currently Mitsubishi Heavy Industries)
Laid down: 17 March 1912
Launched: 1 December 1913
Commissioned: 19 April 1915
Fate: Sank following the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal on 15 November 1942
General characteristics
Class and type: Kongō-class battlecruiser
Displacement: 36,600 long tons (37,187 t)
Length: 222 m (728 ft 4 in)
Beam: 31 m (101 ft 8 in)
Draught: 9.7 m (31 ft 10 in)
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 30 knots (35 mph; 56 km/h)
Range: 10,000 nmi (19,000 km) at 14 kn (26 km/h)
Complement: 1360
Armament:
  • 8 × 356 mm (14 in) guns (4×2)
  • 16 × 152 mm (6 in) guns (8×2)
  • 8 × 127 mm (5.0 in)/50 DP (8×1)
  • numerous 25 mm (0.98 in) Type 96 AA guns
Armor:
  • deck: 2.3–1.5 in (58–38 mm) (later strengthened +101mm on ammo storage, +76mm on engine room)
  • turrets: 9 in (230 mm)
  • barbettes: 10 in (250 mm)
  • belt: 8–11 in (200–280 mm)

Kirishima (霧島) was a warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I and World War II. Designed by British naval engineer George Thurston, she was the third launched of the four Kongō-class battlecruisers. Laid down in 1912 at the Mitsubishi Shipyards in Nagasaki, Kirishima was formally commissioned in 1915 on the same day as her sister ship, HarunaKirishima patrolled on occasion off the Chinese coast during World War I, and helped with rescue efforts following the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake.

Starting in 1927, Kirishima's first reconstruction rebuilt her as a battleship, strengthening her armor and improving her speed. From 1934, a second reconstruction completely rebuilt her superstructure, upgraded her engine plant, and equipped her with launch catapults for floatplanes. Now fast enough to accompany Japan's growing carrier fleet, she was reclassified as a fast battleship. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Kirishima acted primarily as a support vessel and troop transport, moving army troops to mainland China. On the eve of World War II, she sailed as part of Vice-Admiral Chuichi Nagumo's Kido Butai as an escort for the six carriers that attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.

As part of the Third Battleship Division, Kirishima participated in many of the Imperial Japanese Navy's early actions in 1942, providing support for the invasion of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and in the Indian Ocean raid of April 1942. During the Battle of Midway, she provided escort to Nagumo's four carriers, before redeploying to the Solomon Islands during the Battle of Guadalcanal. She escorted Japanese carrier fleets during the battles of the Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz Islands, before sailing as part of a bombardment force under Admiral Nobutake Kondō during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. On the evening of 13 November 1942, Kirishima engaged American cruisers and destroyers alongside her sister ship Hiei. On the night of 14/15 November, in one of only two battleship duels of the Pacific War, Kirishima struck USS South Dakota before being fatally crippled in turn by the battleship USS WashingtonKirishima capsized and sank in the early morning on 15 November 1942 in Ironbottom Sound.

Design and construction

Kirishima being launched, December 1, 1913

Kirishima was the third of the Imperial Japanese Navy's Kongō-class battlecruisers, a group of capital ships designed by the British naval engineer George Thurston. The class was ordered in 1910 in the Japanese Emergency Naval Expansion Bill after the commissioning of HMS Invincible in 1908. The four battlecruisers of the Kongō class were designed to match the naval capabilities of the other major powers at the time; they have been called the battlecruiser version of the British (formerly Turkish) battleship HMS Erin. With their heavy armament and armor protection (which took up 23.3% of their approximately 30,000 ton displacement), Kirishima and her sister ships were vastly superior to any other Japanese capital ship afloat at the time.

The keel of Kirishima was laid down at the Nagasaki shipyards of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries on 17 March 1912, with most of the parts used in her construction manufactured in Japan. Due to a shortage of available slipways, Kirishima and her sister ship Haruna were the first two capital ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy to be built in private Japanese shipyards. After her launch on 1 December 1913, Kirishima's fitting-out began later that month. On 15 December 1914, Captain Kamaya Rokuro was assigned as her chief equipping officer, and she was completed on 19 April 1915.

Armament

Kirishima's main battery consisted of eight 14-inch (36 cm) heavy-caliber main guns in four twin turrets (two forward, two aft).The turrets were noted by the US Office of Naval Intelligence to be "similar to the British 15-inch turrets", with improvements made in flash-tightness. Each of her main guns could fire high-explosive or armor-piercing shells a maximum distance of 38,770 yards (19.14 nmi; 35.45 km) at a firing rate of two shells per minute. The ship's magazines could accommodate ninety rounds of ammunition for each of the main guns, which had an approximate barrel life of 250–280 shots. In 1941, dyes were introduced for the armor-piercing shells of the four Kongō-class battleships, with Kirishima's shells using blue dye.

Her secondary battery was originally sixteen 6-inch (15 cm) 50-caliber medium guns in single casemates (all located amidships), eight 3-inch (7.6 cm) anti-aircraft guns, and eight submerged 21-inch (53 cm) torpedo tubes. The sixteen 6-inch/50 caliber guns were capable of firing 5–6 rounds per minute, with a barrel life of 500 rounds. The 6-inch/50 caliber gun was capable of firing both antiaircraft and antiship shells, though the positioning of the guns on Kirishima made antiaircraft firing impractical. During her second reconstruction, the 3-inch guns were removed and replaced with eight 5-inch (13 cm) guns. These guns could fire between 8 and 14 rounds per minute, with a barrel life of 800–1500 rounds. Designed to fire antiaircraft, antiship, and illumination shells, the 5-inch/40 caliber had the widest variety of shot type of Kirishima's guns. During her second reconstruction, Kirishima was also fitted with a small number of 1-inch (2.5 cm) Type 96 antiaircraft autocannons.

Service

1914–1927: Battlecruiser

Kirishima moored at Sasebo in December 1915

Kirishima was formally commissioned on 19 April 1915, and along with Haruna was assigned to the 1st Battleship Division of the First Fleet. After seven months of trials, she was reassigned to the 3rd Battleship Division of the Second Fleet, with Captain Shima Takeshi in overall command of the ship. In April 1916, Kirishima and Haruna departed Sasebo Naval Base to patrol the East China Sea for ten days. She remained in Sasebo until April 1917, when she again deployed to the Chinese coast with her sister ships Haruna and Kongō. Her last patrol operation of World War I was off the Chinese and Korean coast in April 1918. In July 1918, Kirishima acted as the transport of Prince Arthur of Connaught for his extended cruise to Canada, before returning to Japan.

Following the end of World War I, the Japanese Empire gained control of former German possessions in the central Pacific per the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Due to Japan's warm relations with the British Empire and the United States at the time, Kirishima and other Japanese warships became significantly less active than during the war. On 1 December 1920, she was reassigned to the Third Division of the Second Fleet. Other than a patrol alongside Kongō and Nagato off the Chinese coast in August 1921, Kirishima remained in Sasebo. On 10 September 1922, she collided with the destroyer Fuji during fleet maneuvers, with both ships sustaining minor damage. Following the Great Kantō earthquake of September 1923, the capital ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy assisted in rescue work until the end of the month. She was placed in reserve in December 1923.

With the conclusion of World War I and the signing of the Washington Naval Treaty, the size of the Imperial Japanese Navy was significantly lessened, with a ratio of 5:5:3 required between the capital ships of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan. The treaty also banned Japan from building any new capital ships until 1931, with no capital ship permitted to exceed 35,000 tons. Provided that new additions did not exceed 3,000 tons, existing capital ships were allowed to be upgraded with improved torpedo bulges and deck armor. By the time the Washington Treaty had been fully implemented in Japan, only three classes of World War I-era capital ships—the Fusō and Ise-class battleships, and the Kongō-class battlecruisers—remained active.

1927–1934: Battleship

Kirishima in 1932, following her first reconstruction

Stripped of the ability to construct new capital ships, the Imperial Japanese Navy instead opted to significantly upgrade and reconfigure their existing battleships and battlecruisers. Kirishima was placed in Third Reserve in December 1926, before beginning her first reconstruction in early 1927. Horizontal armor over the ammunition magazines was strengthened, and she was also fitted with anti-torpedo bulges, as permitted by the Washington Treaty. To upgrade Kirishima's speed, the 36 coal-fired Yarrow boilers were removed and replaced with ten new mixed-firing Kampon boilers. To allow for more equipment to be installed on board, her forward superstructure was reconstructed in the Pagoda mast style, facilitating the removal of one of her three funnels. The reconstruction of the Kongō-class battlecruisers added an additional 4,000 tons of armor to the ships, directly violating the terms of the Washington Treaty. On 16 April 1930, the reconstruction was declared complete.

Six days after Kirishima's reconstruction was completed, Japan pledged to scrap several battleships and signed the London Naval Treaty, which placed further bans on capital ship construction until 1937. From August to October 1930, she was outfitted with the equipment necessary to equip reconnaissance seaplanes. Kirishima patrolled the coast of China near Shanghai in April 1932, before she was again placed in the Third Reserve.

In September 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria. On 25 February 1933, based on a report by the Lytton Commission, the League of Nations agreed that Japan had violated Chinese sovereignty in its invasion of Manchuria. Refusing to accept the organization's judgment, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations the same day. Immediately following, Japan also withdrew from the Washington and London Naval Treaties, thus removing all restrictions on the number and size of her capital ships.

1934–1941: Fast battleship

Kirishima and the fast carrier Akagioff Tsukumo, April 1939

On 18 November 1934, Kirishima was drydocked in Sasebo Naval Arsenal in preparation for her second reconstruction, which would enable her to function alongside Japan's growing fleet of fast carriers. Her stern was lengthened by 26 feet (7.9 m), while her superstructure was rebuilt to allow for new fire-control mechanisms. Her boilers were removed and replaced with eight new oil-fired Kampon Boilers, and she received newer geared turbines. The elevation of her main and secondary battery was increased, and she was equipped with two Nakajima E8N "Dave" and Kawanishi E7K "Alf" reconnaissance floatplanes. To this end, aircraft catapults and launch-rails were also refitted. Her older 3-inch guns were removed and replaced with eight 5-inch dual-purpose guns. She was also outfitted with twenty Type 96 25 mm antiaircraft guns in twin turrets, while two of her 6-inch guns and her remaining torpedo tubes were removed.

Kirishima's armor was also extensively upgraded. Her main belt was strengthened to a uniform thickness of 8 inches (as opposed to varying thicknesses of 6–8 inches before the upgrades), while diagonal bulkheads of a depth ranging from 5 to 8 inches (127 to 203 mm) reinforced the main armored belt. The turret armor was strengthened to 10 inches (254 mm), while 4 inches (102 mm) were added to portions of the deck armor. The armor around her ammunition magazines was also strengthened over the course of the refit. The reconstruction was declared complete on 8 June 1936. Capable of speeds of up to 30.5 knots (56.5 km/h; 35.1 mph), Kirishima was reclassified as a fast battleship.

In August 1936, Kirishima departed Sasebo alongside Fuso to patrol the Chinese coast off Amoy. From March 1937 to April 1939, she was frequently deployed as a support vessel and troop transport during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In November 1938, Kirishima was designated the command vessel of the Third Battleship Division, and was under the command of Rear Admiral Chuichi Nagumo. In November 1939, she was placed in reserve and fitted with additional armor on the front faces of her turrets and barbettes.

On 11 November 1941, after a series of transfers between Japanese naval bases, Kirishima was outfitted in preparation for coming hostilities and assigned—alongside her sister ships—to the Third Battleship Division. On 26 November, Kirishima departed Hitokappu Bay, Kurile Islands in the company of Hiei and six Japanese fast carriers of the First Air Fleet Striking Force (AkagiKagaSōryūHiryūShōkaku, and Zuikaku). On 7 December 1941, aircraft from these six carriers attacked the United States Pacific Fleet at their home base of Pearl Harbor, sinking four U.S. Navy battleships and numerous other vessels. Following the attack and the declaration of war by the United States, Kirishima returned to Japan.

1942: Combat and loss

Takao (center) and the Kirishimasteaming for Guadalcanal, 14 November 1942

On 8 January 1942, Kirishima departed Japan for Truk Naval Base in the Caroline Islands alongside the Carrier Strike Force. She provided escort during the invasion of New Britain on 17 January before returning to Truk. She sortied again in response to American carrier raids in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. In March 1942, while supporting fleet operations off of Java in the Dutch East Indies, one of Kirishima's floatplanes bombed an enemy merchant vessel. South of Java, the Japanese fleet was surprised by the appearance of the destroyer USS EdsallHiei and Chikuma initially opened fire on the ship but failed to score any hits. After dive-bombers from three of Admiral Nagumo's carriers immobilized the destroyer, Kirishima and the other two ships resumed firing on Edsall until she sank.

In April 1942, Kirishima and the Third Battleship division joined five fleet carriers and two cruisers in an attack against British naval bases in the Indian Ocean. On 5 April—Easter Sunday—the Japanese fleet attacked the harbor at Colombo in Ceylon, while seaplanes from the Tone spotted two fleeing British cruisers, both of which were later sunk by aerial attack. A floatplane from Kirishima also strafed a withdrawing oil tanker. On 8 April, Japanese carrier aircraft attacked the Royal Navy base at Trincomalee in Ceylon, only to find that all of Admiral James Somerville's remaining warships had withdrawn the previous night. Returning from the attack, a floatplane from Kirishima's sister ship Haruna spotted the aircraft carrier HMS Hermes and escorting destroyer HMAS Vampire, which was quickly sunk by a massive aerial attack. Upon returning to Japan, Kirishima was drydocked and her secondary armament configuration modified with the addition of 25 mm antiaircraft guns in twin mounts.

In June 1942, Kirishima sailed as part of the Carrier Strike Force during the Battle of Midway, providing escort for Admiral Nagumo's four fast carriers alongside Haruna.Following the disastrous battle, during which all four Japanese carriers were lost, she took on survivors from the four flattops before returning to Japan. In August 1942, she departed Japan for the Solomon Islands in the company of Hiei, three carriers, three cruisers and eleven destroyers, in response to the American invasion of Guadalcanal. She escorted Japanese carriers during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, during which the light carrier Ryūjō was sunk. Following the battle, the fleet returned to Truk Naval Base. During the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, Kirishima was part of Rear Admiral Hiroaki Abe's Vanguard Force, which provided distant cover to Nagumo's carrier groups. She was attacked by American dive-bombers on 26 October, yet remained undamaged.

On 10 November 1942, Kirishima departed Truk alongside Hiei and eleven destroyers in preparation to shell American positions on Guadalcanal in advance of a major transport convoy of Japanese troops. U.S. Navy reconnaissance aircraft spotted the Japanese fleet several days in advance, and a U. S. Navy force of two heavy cruisers, three light cruisers and eight destroyers was deployed under the command of Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan in Ironbottom Sound to meet them. At 01:24 on 13 November, the Japanese force was detected 28,000 yards (26 km) out by the light cruiser USS Helena. In the ensuing First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, the American task force concentrated the majority of their firepower on the battleship Hiei. This enabled Kirishima to score multiple hits on the Helena and heavy cruiser USS San Francisco, while Hiei crippled the light cruiser USS Atlanta, killing Rear Admiral Norman Scott. Both Hiei and Kirishima then raked San Francisco with shellfire, killing Rear Admiral Callaghan. However, Hiei was in turn crippled by San Francisco and several American destroyers. With Hiei effectively out of the battle, Kirishima and the surviving destroyers withdrew to the north. On the morning of 13 November, she was ordered to tow Hiei to safety. However, the heavily damaged battleship came under air attack, and was eventually abandoned and scuttled.

Washington fires on Kirishimaduring the Second Naval Battle of Guadalcanal on 15 November 1942

On the evening of 13 November, Kirishima and her escorting destroyers were joined by the Fourth Cruiser Division and prepared to reenter Ironbottom Sound under the command of Admiral Nobutake Kondō. In the early morning of 14 November, three Japanese heavy cruisers bombarded Guadalcanal before withdrawing. Aware of the damage suffered by his ships the previous night, Admiral William Halseyreinforced the American naval units with the new battleships USS South Dakota and USS Washington. The two fleets made contact on 14 November at 23:01. They exchanged gunfire and torpedoes, with four American destroyers disabled (three would later sink), while the destroyer Ayanami was crippled by Washington and South Dakota.

At 23:40, South Dakota suffered a series of electrical failures, crippling her radar, radios and gun batteries. Kirishima and the heavy cruiser Atago illuminated the battleship with searchlights, and almost all of Kondō's force opened fire. Kirishima achieved hits on South Dakota with at least three 14-inch salvos and several salvos from her secondary battery, which knocked out the battleship's fire control systems and communications but failed to penetrate her armor. Washington, undetected, managed to evade the Japanese fleet, and at midnight fired on Kirishima from 5,800 yards (5,300 m), point blank range for Washington's 16-inch/45-caliber guns, which were easily capable of penetrating Kirishima's armor at their maximum range. Kirishima was hit by at least nine primary and seventeen secondary battery projectiles, destroying her bow 14-inch turrets, jamming her rear 14-inch turrets and steering, setting her superstructure afire, and causing the battleship to list 18 degrees to starboard. Initially, the light cruiser Nagara attempted to tow her out of Ironbottom Sound. When it became clear she could not be salvaged, the surviving Japanese destroyers evacuated Admiral Kondō and the remaining survivors. Kirishima capsized at 03:25 on the morning of 15 November 1942, with 212 crewmen lost.

Her wreck was discovered by Robert Ballard during an expedition to map the wrecks from the Battle of Guadalcanal in 1992. She lies upside down with her bow section and the tip of her stern section broken off. Her anchor chain is wrapped around her stern section.

In conclusion
Both of these ships come with a very broad history for more than 30 years
And many wars and difficult battles. In 1908 the ships were only in the planning stages and two years later an order was made by the Japanese Navy in 1912. Construction began and the construction was completed at the end of 1913. Towards 1914, in 1915 the ships entered the test period of 8 months until December In 1915 they were sent to the Japanese Navy for training missions until April 1916, and from there they reached the East China Sea for continuing training until December 1916 and continued until 1917. September was replaced by ship commanders. In December, the ships were stationed in the Pacific Ocean for hostilities at the beginning of World War I, The ships' months Returned to the Japanese Navy for the repair and installation of new weapons such as guns and combat rifles
Haruna was involved in gun exercises when a powerful explosion destroyed the right-hand gun of Turret No. 1, killing seven people and severely damaging the roof of the turret. A later investigation of the Imperial Japanese Navy concluded that a faulty fuse ignited the bags of gunpowder in Acre, and blew the shell into the barrel. The turret was repaired in the naval arsenal, it was reinstated.
With the end of the First World War and the signing of the Washington Navy Agreement, the size of the Imperial Japanese Navy was greatly reduced, with the ratio of 5: 5 to 3 between the ships of Britain, the United States, and Japan. The treaty also forbade Japan to build any new ships until 1931, without a ship being allowed to weigh more than 36,000 tons. Although the new additions did not exceed 3,000 tons, existing ships were allowed to upgrade with improved torpedo bumps and the addition of deck armor. Until the Washington Treaty was fully implemented in Japan, there were only three groups of capital ships from World War I: middle-class, middle-class systems in the Congo, and one of Paso's battle systems (Yamashiro)
In 1926 the ships underwent full conversion to warships for all intents and purposes for attack and defense. The construction continued for seven years until 1933, from which the ships went on escort missions to the Japanese Navy and fully participated in World War II, attacking other ships with a length of 222 meters and shields Of 230 mm on its vulnerable sides and with a weight of 36500 thousand tons of full armament and reached a cruising speed of more than 45 km in the open sea and for those years it was a fast and powerful warship and in 1945 was severely damaged in long and difficult battles and all this is Deserves great respect and tremendous appreciation for the closeness, determination and strong maritime power and wealth.

The quality of the kits is very high
The kits are also very good and tend to show all parts of the ships from the smallest to the largest part, the body of the ship is very realistic and detailed in relation to the ships at the same scale
Everything is clearly visible and is not really, the outer packaging is very invested and beautiful with an impressive graphic image and a small drop relative to the registered size, this manufacturer is considered very good in his kits and very intriguing and interesting, very high quality dark gray and thick plastic gives a strong foundation for high quality paint and realistic and natural finish, It is recommended to buy very high quality paints for this kit in order to obtain a full match for the colors of the ship
A quality booklet with a strong black lettering accompanies the assembly of the ship and adds quality time fun and fun from beginning to end, and here in these kits you will get good value for money and more enjoyment from this hobby

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PLATZ 1/24 BMW M6 GT3 2016 SPA 24 HOURS WINNER PN24001 FULL review PART 1 OF 4

BMW M6 GT3 THE RACE CAR

The BMW M6 GT3 at Adelaide Parklands Circuit in the Australian GT Championship

Around the start of 2015, BMW Motorsport began developing a replacement for the successful BMW Z4 GT3 which already had been in action since 2010, where they selected the M6 as the base model. Throughout the year, the factory engineered the M6 to match FIA GT3specifications. Emphasis was placed on safety with BMW Motorsport producing an "FIA-approved safety cell in accordance with the very latest safety standards". Unlike the Z4 GT3, which used an engine derived from the BMW M3, the engine of the M6 GT3 was virtually unchanged from that of the production model of the M6 (and the BMW M5). The engine only faced some modifications for use in motorsport. In May 2015, at Dingolfing, BMW works driver Jörg Müller drove the M6 GT3 on its first roll-out to contribute a milestone to its development, and later the M6 GT3 was revealed near the end of the year.

The M6 GT3 showed its success on its debut year in 2016 when Rowe Racing clinched overall victory at the 2016 Spa 24 Hours with BMW works drivers Philipp Eng, Maxime Martin, and Alexander Sims at the wheel. The car also celebrated success in championships around the world, with wins in the VLN, Italian GT Championship, and Super GT Championship.


MORE ABOUT 24 Hours of Spa is an endurance racing event

The Total 24 Hours of Spa is an endurance racing event for cars held annually in Belgium since 1923 at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. It is currently sponsored by Total S.A..

History

Alfa Romeos after triple win in 1930

The Spa 24 Hours was conceived by Jules de Their and Henri Langlois Van Ophem just one year after the inaugural 24 Hours of Le Mans was run. It debuted in 1924 over a 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) circuit on public roads between the towns of Francorchamps, Malmedy and Stavelot, under the auspices of the Royal Automobile Club Belgium (RACB). The present 7.004 kilometres (4.352 mi) circuit was inaugurated in 1979.

The Spa 24 Hours was part of the European Touring Car Championship from 1966 to 1973, again in 1976 and from 1982 to 1988 (with the exception of 1987 when it was part of the inaugural World Touring Car Championship). The event also counted towards the World Sportscar Championship in 1953 and the World Endurance Championship in 1981. As on the Nürburgring, both a 24h and a 1000 km race is held at Spa, as the 1000 km Spa for sports car racing were introduced in 1966.

Cars entered have spanned from the Russian Moskvitch and models with sub-1 liter engines such as the NSU Prinz TT to the luxurious V8-powered Mercedes-Benz 300 SEL 6.3. Tuned by Mercedes-AMG, the 6834 cc and 420 hp (313 kW) so-called "Red pig" finished as high as second in 1971.

With the participation of Swiss Lilian Bryner on the victorious Ferrari 550 of the BMS Scuderia Italia team, the 2004 race marked the first time in history that a female driver was part of the winning team of a 24-hour endurance race in a Gran Turismo with more than 500 hp (370 kW).

The best manufacturer wins the Coupe du Roi (King's Cup), which is not necessarily the race winners. The cup is won by the manufacturer with the most points, accrued by cars that are made by the same manufacturer. For example, Australian car manufacturer Holden won the Coupe du Roi in 1986 despite their cars finishing the race in 18th, 22nd and 23rd positions outright.

Results on the 15km track

The original 15 km track layout

Year Car Pilots Distance Average Notes
1924 Bignan 2L France Henri Springuel
France Maurice Becquet
1925 Chenard-Walcker France André Lagache
France René Léonard
1926 Peugeot 174S France André Boillot
France Louis Rigal
1927 Excelsior France Robert Sénéchal
Belgium Nicolas Caerels
1928 Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 S Russia Boris Ivanowski[NB 1]
Italy Attilio Marinoni
1929 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750SS France Robert Benoist
Italy Attilio Marinoni
1930 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750GS Italy Attilio Marinoni
Italy Pietro Ghersi
1931 Mercedes-Benz SSK Georgia (country) Dimitri Djordjadze[NB 2]
Italy Goffredo Zehender
1932 Alfa Romeo 8C 2300LM Italy Antonio Brivio
Italy Eugenio Siena
1933 Alfa Romeo 8C 2300LM Monaco Louis Chiron
Italy Luigi Chinetti
1934 Bugatti Type 44 France Jean Desvignes
France Norbert Mahé
Reduced to 10 hours[3]
1935 No race held
1936 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900A Italy Francesco Severi
France Raymond Sommer
1937 No race held
1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Italy Carlo Pintacuda
Italy Francesco Severi
1939
1947
No races held
1948 Aston Martin 2-Litre Sports United Kingdom St. John Horsfall
United Kingdom Leslie Johnson
1949 Ferrari 166MM United States Luigi Chinetti
France Jean Lucas

Results on the 14km track

The quicker 14 km track layout

Year Car Pilots Distance Average Notes
1950
1952
No races held
1953 Ferrari 375MM Pinin Italy Giuseppe Farina
United Kingdom Mike Hawthorn
World Sportscar Championship
1954
1963
No races held
1964 Mercedes-Benz 300SE Belgium Robert Crevits
Belgium Gustave Gosselin
3962,100 164,825
1965 BMW 1800 Ti/SA Belgium Pascal Ickx
Belgium Gérard Langlois van Ophem
3812,591 158,855
1966 BMW 2000ti Germany Hubert Hahne
Belgium Jacky Ickx
4048,368 168,681 European Touring Car Championship
1967 Porsche 911 Belgium Jean-Pierre Gaban
Belgium Noël Van Assche
4052,883 168,867 European Touring Car Championship
1968 Porsche 911 Germany Erwin Kremer
Germany Willi Kauhsen
Germany Helmut Kelleners
4004,827 166,867 European Touring Car Championship
1969 Porsche 911 France Guy Chasseuil
France Claude Ballot-Lena
4272,231 187,006 European Touring Car Championship
1970 BMW 2800CS Austria Günther Huber
Germany Helmut Kelleners
4252,407 177,183 European Touring Car Championship
1971 Ford Capri RS Germany Dieter Glemser
Spain Alex Soler-Roig
4385,100 182,690 European Touring Car Championship
1972 Ford Capri RS 2600 Germany Jochen Mass
Germany Hans-Joachim Stuck
4498,436 187,431 European Touring Car Championship
1973 BMW 3.0 CSL Netherlands Toine Hezemans
Austria Dieter Quester
4422,980 184,290 European Touring Car Championship
1974 BMW 3.0 CSi Belgium Jean Xhenceval
Belgium Alain Peltier
Belgium Pierre Dieudonné
4147,289 172,804 Trophée de l'Avenir
1975 BMW 3.0 CSi Belgium Pierre Dieudonné
Belgium Jean Xhenceval
Belgium Hughes de Fierlandt
4249,270 177,053 Trophée de l'Avenir
1976 BMW 3.0 CSL Belgium Jean-Marie Detrin
Luxembourg Nico Demuth
Belgium Charles Van Stalle
4087,904 170,329 European Touring Car Championship
1977 BMW 530i Belgium Eddy Joosen
France Jean-Claude Andruet
4083,835 170,159 Trophée de l'Avenir
1978 Ford Capri III 3.0S United Kingdom Gordon Spice
Belgium Teddy Pilette
4315,594 179,816 Trophée de l'Avenir

Results on 7km track

7km modern track

The current version of the Spa 24 Hours is an event under the Blancpain Endurance Series calendar, although it was previously run as part of the FIA GT Championship featuring GT1 and GT2 machinery, and by various touring car series. Currently, the cars run fall under the FIA GT3 and GT3 Cup classifications.

Year Car Pilots Distance Average Notes
1979 Ford Capri III 3.0S Belgium Jean-Michel Martin
Belgium Philippe Martin
3083,632 128,485 Trophée de l'Avenir
1980 Ford Capri III 3.0S Belgium Jean-Michel Martin
Belgium Philippe Martin
2952,318 123,013
1981 Mazda RX-7 Belgium Pierre Dieudonné
United Kingdom Tom Walkinshaw
3183,952 132,737 World Endurance Championship
Trophée de l'Avenir
1982 BMW 528i Germany Hans Heyer
Germany Armin Hahne
Belgium Eddy Joosen
3132,224 130,808 European Touring Car Championship
1983 BMW 635 CSi Belgium Thierry Tassin
Germany Hans Heyer
Germany Armin Hahne
3333,726 130,808 European Touring Car Championship
1984 Jaguar XJS Germany Hans Heyer
United Kingdom Tom Walkinshaw
United Kingdom Win Percy
3055,485 131,091 European Touring Car Championship
1985 BMW 635 CSi Italy Roberto Ravaglia
Switzerland Marc Surer
Austria Gerhard Berger
3470,000 144,344 European Touring Car Championship
1986 BMW 635 CSi Austria Dieter Quester
Germany Altfrid Heger
Belgium Thierry Tassin
3463,060 144,232 European Touring Car Championship
1987 BMW M3 Belgium Jean-Michel Martin
Belgium Didier Theys
Belgium Eric van de Poele
3338,140 139,908 World Touring Car Championship
1988 BMW M3 Germany Altfrid Heger
Austria Dieter Quester
Italy Roberto Ravaglia
3532,460 146,929 European Touring Car Championship
1989 Ford Sierra RS500 Italy Gianfranco Brancatelli
United Kingdom Win Percy
Germany Bernd Schneider
3338,140 139,130
1990 BMW M3 Evolution Germany Markus Oestreich
France Fabien Giroix
Venezuela Johnny Cecotto
3247,920 135,330
1991 Nissan Skyline R32 GT-R Sweden Anders Olofsson
Australia David Brabham
Japan Naoki Hattori
3587,980 149,456
1992 BMW M3 Evolution United Kingdom Steve Soper
Belgium Jean-Michel Martin
Germany Christian Danner
3560,220 148,947
1993 Porsche 911 RSR Germany Uwe Alzen
Brazil Christian Fittipaldi
France Jean-Pierre Jarier
2154,904 144,667 Race stopped after 15 hours due to the death of King Baudouin
1994 BMW 318is Italy Roberto Ravaglia
Belgium Thierry Tassin
Germany Alexander Burgstaller
3625,960 151,047
1995 BMW 320i Germany Joachim Winkelhock
United Kingdom Steve Soper
Netherlands Peter Kox
3612,532 150,531
1996 BMW 320i Germany Jörg Müller
Germany Alexander Burgstaller
Belgium Thierry Tassin
3507,821 145,956
1997 BMW 320i Belgium Didier de Radigues
Belgium Marc Duez
France Éric Hélary
3372,680 140,252
1998 BMW 318i France Alain Cudini
Belgium Marc Duez
Belgium Eric van de Poele
3344,807 139,344
1999 Peugeot 306 GTI Belgium Frédéric Bouvy
France Emmanuel Collard
France Anthony Beltoise
3428,427 142,588
2000 Peugeot 306 GTI France Didier Defourny
Belgium Frédéric Bouvy
Belgium Kurt Mollekens
3330,870 138,686 Last race for touring cars
2001 Chrysler Viper GTS-R Belgium Marc Duez
France Christophe Bouchut
France Jean-Philippe Belloc
3679,104 152,999 FIA GT Championship
2002 Chrysler Viper GTS-R France Christophe Bouchut
France Sébastien Bourdais
France David Terrien
Belgium Vincent Vosse
3654,059 152,019 FIA GT Championship
2003 Porsche 911 GT3-RS France Romain Dumas
France Stéphane Ortelli
Germany Marc Lieb
3327,613 138,557 FIA GT Championship
2004 Ferrari 550-GTS Maranello Italy Luca Cappellari
Italy Fabrizio Gollin
Switzerland Lilian Bryner
Switzerland Enzo Calderari
3888,144 161,974 FIA GT Championship
2005 Maserati MC12 Germany Michael Bartels
Germany Timo Scheider
Belgium Eric van de Poele
4000,896 166,638 FIA GT Championship
2006 Maserati MC12 Belgium Eric van de Poele
Germany Michael Bartels
Italy Andrea Bertolini
4092,961 171,034 FIA GT Championship
2007 Chevrolet Corvette C6.R Italy Fabrizio Gollin
Netherlands Mike Hezemans
Switzerland Jean-Denis Délétraz
Switzerland Marcel Fässler
3726,660 155,241 FIA GT Championship
2008 Maserati MC12 Germany Michael Bartels
Italy Andrea Bertolini
France Stéphane Sarrazin
Belgium Eric van de Poele
4041,885 168,096 FIA GT Championship
2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6.R Belgium Anthony Kumpen
Belgium Kurt Mollekens
Netherlands Mike Hezemans
Netherlands Jos Menten
3915.236 163.128 FIA GT Championship
2010 Porsche 997 GT3-RSR France Romain Dumas
Austria Martin Ragginger
Germany Jörg Bergmeister
Germany Wolf Henzler
3789.164 157.832 FIA GT2 European Cup
2011 Audi R8 LMS Germany Timo Scheider
Belgium Greg Franchi
Sweden Mattias Ekström
3817.180 158.898 Blancpain Endurance Series
2012 Audi R8 LMS ultra Italy Andrea Piccini
Germany René Rast
Germany Frank Stippler
3565.036 148,543 Blancpain Endurance Series
2013 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 Germany Bernd Schneider
Germany Maximilian Götz
Germany Maximilian Buhk
3950.256 164,594 Blancpain Endurance Series
2014 Audi R8 LMS ultra Germany René Rast
Germany Markus Winkelhock
Belgium Laurens Vanthoor
3691.108 153,732 Blancpain Endurance Series
Red flag (1 hour)
2015 BMW Z4 GT3 Netherlands Nick Catsburg
Germany Lucas Luhr
Finland Markus Palttala
3754.144 156.423 Blancpain Endurance Series
2016 BMW M6 GT3 Austria Philipp Eng
Belgium Maxime Martin
United Kingdom Alexander Sims
3719.403 154.975 Blancpain GT

*** BOX OF THE KIT ***

FULL BOX

SIDE BOX With general information about the car
And the advantages of the kit
Includes barcode
And a matching color list for the kit
And warning messages on sharp parts rather than paint the vehicle near the fire source

Picture of the prepared vehicle The model on the back of the cardboard with black inscription stands out the name of the product and a scale
And a manufacturer's logo

Picture of the prepared vehicle The model on the back of the cardboard on the other side with a black inscription stands out the name of the product and a scale
And a manufacturer's logo

The image of the model prepared in 3 images on the back of the package with a red warning window in several different languages

**The package is very hard and strong with a high quality graphic image and a very large font in red and gold colors, a very impressive advantage**


***assembly manual***

Detailed assembly instruction manual

***The model is very easy to assemble and very easy to understand***

Before assembly, please check that everything is in the box

sticker label page and where to paint and with what shade you need and on the exact location on the car 
very important tip Please buy quality colors for a realistic and natural finish


decals ON HD

The highest quality there is
See the colors in high definition
Natural and natural color with clear writing
On quality and convenient pages for viewing
The detail of the stickers is amazing
And it is also beautiful to the eye, perfectly matches the vehicle dimensions
Very impressive and adds life to the kit in the spirit of racing
Convenient and easy to paste

decal set 1of 2

Pictures from different sides

all on HD


***Parts of the big page***

 


decals

Parts of the page 2

decal set 2of 2

+ Pictures from different sides

full decal 2

 

back view

full decal 1

 


IN TOO THE KIT PARTS FROM Content box

E PARTS

Headlights on the front and back of the vehicle
Heads of headlights in the front of the vehicle
At the bottom
Of the front of the vehicle
Headlights Racing and Side mirrors

 

E1- E2 IS Side mirrors

Pictures from different sides
From front to back
Down and up
Width and length


C PARTS

Pipes and piping
A pair of exhausts to the right side and left side
Rear and front wheel bases
A main joystick on either side of the left and right sides
Suspension system for the front and rear of the vehicle
Main drive axis
The gas pedal panel and the brakes
Air intake bases for carburet in the front of the vehicle

Pictures from different sides
From front to back
Down and up

Which you can see easily and in a sharp and deep detail

Suspension system for the front of the vehicle

Suspension system for the rear of the vehicle

The crankshaft with a steering tube

Mirrors to the right and to the left

The crankshaft with a steering tube and A steering wheel in the cab ON HD

A steering wheel in the cab and 
Mirrors to the right and to the left

Valve/ Screw /and plugs all external

3 Suspension parts Side view

Rear and front wheel bases back view

A pair of exhausts to the right side and left side and Rear and front wheel bases

Valve/ Screw /and plugs all external Side view

External tubes

pair of exhausts

Rear wheel bases

Picture of most parts on the side with strong lighting
The parts look very clear and indeed comfortable to the eye and there is an advantage in the quality of the plastic and even see it, detail parts very well even at this angle

Two-sided steering wheel with sharp angles for further detail
The picture shows only one end of the axis
A large, clear medium light

Air intake bases for carburet in the front of the vehicle front view

The gas pedal panel and the brakes view from the Top

Pipes and piping
A pair of exhausts to the right side and left side
Rear and front wheel bases
A main crankshaft on either side of the left and right sides
Suspension system for the front and rear of the vehicle
Main drive axis
The gas pedal panel and the brakes
Air intake bases for carburet in the front of the vehicle

The gas pedal panel and the brakes view from the back

Air intake bases for carburet in the front of the vehicle back view

 

This is indeed a very impressive kit
Very easy to assemble
All parts of the kit are very detailed
The quality of the product is very high
The accuracy of the parts is very good
The plastic kit is very high quality in colors that match the real car
Highly invested and quality product

Racing cars are a very interesting subject

****Highly recommended****

I would like to thank PLATZ sent me sample kit for the review

Continue the rest of review will be soon

on PART 2…